The diagnosis and treatment of these nutrient deficiencies can reduce blood pressure; improve vascular health, endothelial dysfunction, and vascular biology; and decrease cardiovascular events. Vascular biology assumes a pivotal role in the initiation and perpetuation of hypertension and target organ damage TOD. Endothelial activation, oxidative stress, inflammation, autoimmune vascular dysfunction, and vascular smooth-muscle dysfunction are initial events in hypertension.
Nutrient gene interactions determine a broad array of phenotypic consequences, such as vascular problems and hypertension. In addition to other lifestyle modifications, optimal nutrition, nutraceutical supplements, vitamins, antioxidants, minerals, weight loss, exercise, smoking cessation, and moderate restriction of alcohol and caffeine can prevent and control hypertension in many patients.
An integrative approach combining these lifestyle suggestions with the correct pharmacologic treatment will best achieve new goals for blood pressure levels, reduce cardiovascular risk factors, improve vascular biology and vascular health, reduce cardiovascular TOD, and reduce health care expenditures. Obesity is a growing epidemic worldwide. Search terms included probiotics, obesity, weight, BMI, weight gain, weight loss, weight change, probiotic diet and probiotic therapy. In an unblended standardized manner, 2 reviewers analysed the searched studies, using the defined inclusion and exclusion criteria, and performed extraction of data, in an independent way, using predefined data fields.
They are live microorganisms in most cases, bacteria that are similar to beneficial microorganisms found in the human gut.
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They can be used as complementary and alternative medicine. This describes current knowledge on probiotics bacteriotheraphy from the general health as well as oral health perspective. The number of people on Earth continues to increase, although it is likely to peak at between 9 and 10 billion later in this century. Not only will there be more people, but they will be wealthier and will demand a more varied diet.
This increasing pressure to produce more food comes at a time when productive land is being lost to urbanization and to the net negative effects of climate change. In the face of these threats, conservationists have long debated how best to preserve biodiversity.
To feed more than 7 billion today and the 10 billion people in , we need to put in place a sound food system.
Emerging technologies for food quality and food safety evaluation 
However, climate change, water shortages, loss of biodiversity and polluted seas and oceans are adversely impacting global food production systems and undermining the ability to produce food sustainably. Today, the very foundation of our food system is threatened by climate change. Global and national modeling studies suggest that yields of major cereals will decline under scenarios of increased temperature, especially in tropical countries.
Water scarcity threatens agricultural growth. Biodiversity loss, including loss of critical crop pollinators, and loss of soil quality will impact global fruit and vegetable supply and as a result adversely impact our health. Advances in Food Technology and Nutritional Science. Submit Abstract Now. Food Engineering. Food Security and Agrotechnology.
Food Nanotechnology. Food Microbiology. Food and Chemical Toxicology. Food Chemistry and Biochemistry. Industrial Biotechnology in Food Industry.
Food Processing and Packaging Technologies. Food Standards and Quality Assurance. Food Safety and Preservation : Modern Biological Approaches to Improving Consumer Health explores the most recent and investigated hot topics in food safety, microbial contamination, food-borne diseases and advanced preservation methods. It brings together the significant, evidence-based scientific progress of various approaches to improve the safety and quality of foods, also offering solutions to help address food industry challenges.
Recent studies and technological advancements in biological control are presented to control foodborne pathogens. In addition, analytical methods for reducing potential biological hazards make this essential to researchers, scientists, technologists and grad students.
Handbook of Food Processing: Food Safety, Quality, and Manufacturing Processes
Novel Food Production Methods. Food additives and ingredients in Food Manufacturing. Food bioactives on nutrition and food product development. Food Informatics, Regulations and Packaging.
Emerging Technologies for Food Quality and Food Safety Evaluation - CRC Press Book
Evaluating the hazards : The first and most important step in managing food safety hazards is identifying them: one cannot minimise a hazard without being aware of it. Contamination risks are commonly found where materials are added, product is extracted, vessels are opened, raw materials are introduced, finished products are packaged or, most pernicious of all, where employees are most unlikely to follow operating procedures.
This is why defining preventive measures is one of the most critical parts of a controls plan. Hazards can be introduced to the production process in many ways, including equipment failures, human error, poor environmental or site-specific conditions, as well as the use of non-conforming materials. A LIMS can play a role in preventing all of these hazards. Specifying corrective actions. Functional Food and Nutraceuticals. Food, Nutrition and Metabolism. Food Hygiene. Food intake and Gustation. Food Business. Gastroenteritis and Cancer. Nutrition and Cancer.
Nutrition and Diet. Nutrition and Fitness. Current research in Nutrition and Dietetics.
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Nutritional psycology. In fact, irradiation technology has proved to be efficient in reducing bacterial contamination to produce sterile food, which is particularly important for patients with impaired immunity such as those suffering from AIDS and cancer [ 3 ]. However, research has shown that the public tends to be averse to irradiated food despite the fact that it has been recognized as safe by authorities [ 11 ].
A number of factors may explain this reluctance, one of which is the lack of proper knowledge about the technology employed to process the food. According to Frewer et al. A recent study by Nayga et al.
Novel agri-food technologies has led to the development of food preferences and food neophilia individuals being willing to try new foods versus neophobia individuals being reluctant to try novel foods [ 13 ]. Based on these concepts, Pliner and Hobden [ 14 ] even introduced a scale to measure food neophobia. Cox and Evans [ 15 ] modified this approach to establish a measure of food technology neophobia.
This scale gauges the fear and reluctance of consumers to eat foods produced by innovative technologies. In a study conducted by Capiola and Raudenbush [ 16 ], it was found that food neophilics and food neophobics tend to exhibit different sensory evaluations, psychophysical ratings, stimulus sampling, physiological responses, and genetic predispositions. For years investigators have conducted research in view of assessing consumer responses to novel food technologies, and examined a variety of factors that may influence the perception of consumers towards these emerging technologies.
In this context, the risks associated with these responses have been evaluated based on different scenarios such as voluntary and involuntary, immediate or delayed, observable or unseen, fatal or non-fatal, the degree to which the risk is known or not, and the degree of control that the consumers have over the risk [ 11 , 17 ]. Based on a study conducted by Cardello et al. Genetic food manipulation was at the top of the list and elicited the highest level of concern from consumers, followed by the addition of bacteriocins, irradiation, and pulsed X-rays.
Consumers displayed less concern about technologies such as UV light, pulsed electric fields, and oscillating magnetic fields. The perception of food technologies by consumers in turn plays a crucial role in their choices, purchasing behavior, and acceptance of these foods. From an economic point of view, it is essential to optimize the sensory quality of food products so as to foster their consumption by the public.
According to Bruhn [ 22 ], good flavor or unique flavor combinations of food products largely determine their success with consumers. Such intrinsic features also include the nutritional value of the food products such as fiber, beneficial fatty acids, lycopene, vitamin C, and probiotic, among others [ 23 ]. However, relying only on the sensorial quality of foods does not guarantee their success in the marketplace since there are other factors that contribute to their acceptance by consumers. With regards to novel food technologies, consumers show concern about the nature of the resulting processed food or the nature of the processing technology itself, and these play a crucial role in determining whether consumers will buy the food or not.
Studies have shown that a lack of knowledge among consumers regarding novel food processing technologies is a major impediment to their acceptance [ 25 ]. Hence, consumer communication is essential for consumers to accept innovative food technologies. Many consumers have little knowledge about modern production agriculture; according to Campbell and Fitzgerald [ 26 ], the new technologies applied in food processing are foreign to contemporary consumers, and the low literacy of consumers often limits their acceptance. According to Li-Cohen and Bruhn [ 27 ], information about the processing of food should be presented to consumers through different routes depending on age and gender.
Based on this study, it was found that men and younger consumers tend to prefer web-based sources than women or middle to older people, who rely more on television, newspapers, magazines, and supermarket brochures. In addition, consumers appear to be cautious about accepting novel technologies applied to food based on the perceived risks and lack of benefits. A study conducted by Cox et al. On the other hand, females show more negative beliefs about innovative food technologies.
In an effort to mitigate the negative perception of the impact of foods derived from novel technologies and inculcate trust among consumers, food industry researchers are focusing their attention on public education and dissemination of information regarding these food products [ 29 , 30 , 31 ]. Educational programs should be set up to impart the right information to the public regarding food produced from novel technologies.