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Gedichte aus Bohmens Vorzeit

Douwes See: Douwes Dekker, E. English as Translator Walladmor, Vol. Adelaide de Vendel De Vere, M. Wieland's Biographie German as Author Friedrich v.

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Schiller's Biographie German as Author J. Meinhold ; translated from the German by Lady Duff Gordon. German as Author Edwards, L. Band von 8 German as Author Enlund, J. German as Author Fogowitz, Andrea H. Van See: Van Gerpen, E. German as Author Amerikanische Wald- und Strombilder. German as Author Der Erbe: Roman. Dritter Band. Indische Skizzen German as Author Inselwelt. Australische Skizzen.

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Band German as Author Der Kunstreiter, 2. Band German as Author Der Kunstreiter, 3. Ein Volksbuch. German as Author Unter Palmen und Buchen. Unter Buchen. The gods thus fashioned among each people were national gods, whose domain extended no farther than the national territory which they were to protect; on the other side of its frontiers other gods held undisputed sway. They could continue to exist, in the imagination, only as long as the nation existed; they fell with its fall. The Roman world empire, the economic conditions of whose origin we do not need to examine here, brought about this downfall of the old nationalities.

T h e old national gods declined, even those of the Romans, which also were geared to suit only the narrow confines of the city of Rome.

T h e need to complement the world empire by means of a world religion was clearly revealed in the attempts made to provide in Rome recognition and altars for all the foreign gods that were to the slightest degree respectable, alongside the indigenous ones. But a new world religion is not to be made in this fashion, by imperial decrees. The new world religion, Christianity, had already quietly come into being, out of a mixture of generalised Oriental, particularly Jewish, theology, and vulgarised Greek, particularly Stoic, philosophy.

What it originally looked like has yet to be laboriously discovered, since its official form, as it has been handed down to us, is merely that in which it became the state religion, to which purpose it was adapted by the Council of Nicaea. In the Middle Ages,. And when the burghers began to thrive, there developed, in opposition to feudal Catholicism, the Protestant heresy, which first appeared in Southern France, among the Albigenses, at the time the cities there were in their heyday.

The Middle Ages had attached to theology all the other forms of ideology—philosophy, politics, jurisprudence—and made them subdivisions of theology. It thereby constrained every social and political movement to take on a theological form. T h e sentiments of the masses, fed exclusively on religion, had to have their own interests presented to them in a religious guise in order to create a great turbulence. And just as the burghers from the beginning produced an appendage of propertyless urban plebeians, day labourers and servants of all kinds, belonging to no recognised social estate, precursors of the later proletariat, so likewise 3 heresy soon became divided into a moderate burgher heresy and a revolutionary plebeian one, the latter an abomination even to the burgher heretics.

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T h e ineradicableness of the Protestant heresy corresponded to the invincibility of the rising burghers. When these burghers had become sufficiently strengthened, their struggle against the feudal nobility, which till then had been predominantly local, began to assume national dimensions.

T h e first great campaign occurred in Germany—the so-called Reformation. T h e burghers were neither powerful enough nor sufficiently developed to be able to unite under their banner the remaining rebellious estates—the plebeians of the towns, the lower nobility and the peasants in the countryside. T h e nobles were the first to be defeated; the peasants rose in a revolt which formed the climax of the whole revolutionary movement; the cities left them in the lurch, and thus the revolution succumbed to the armies of the sovereigns, who swept the board.

Thenceforward Germany disappears for three centuries from among the countries playing an independent active part in history. But beside the German Luther there had appeared the Frenchman Calvin. With true French acuity he put the bourgeois character of the Reformation in the forefront, republicanised and democratised the Church.


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While the Lutheran Reformation in Germany degenerated and reduced the Country to rack and ruin, the Calvinist Reformation served as a banner for the republicans in Geneva, in Holland and in Scotland, freed a. Holland from Spain and from the German Empire and provided the ideological costume for the second act of the bourgeois revolution, which was taking place in England.

Here Calvinism stood the test as the true religious disguise of the interests of the contemporary bourgeoisie and on this account did not attain full recognition when the revolution ended in in a compromise between part of the nobility and the bourgeoisie. T h e old Established Church had celebrated the merry Catholic Sunday and had fought against the dull Calvinist one. T h e new, bourgeois Church introduced the latter, which adorns England to this day.

In France, the Calvinist minority was suppressed in and either Catholicised or driven out of the country. Already at that time the freethinker Pierre Bay le was hard at work, and in Voltaire was born. T h e forcible measures of Louis XIV only made it easier for the French bourgeoisie to carry through its revolution in the irreligious, exclusively political form which alone was suited to a developed bourgeoisie. Instead of Protestants, freethinkers took their seats in the national assemblies.

Christianity had thus entered into its final stage.

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It had become incapable of continuing to serve any progressive class as the ideological garb of its aspirations. It became more and more the exclusive possession of the ruling classes and they use it as a mere means of government, to keep the lower classes within certain bounds. We see, therefore: religion, once formed, always contains traditional material, just as in all ideological domains tradition constitutes a great conservative force. But the changes which this material undergoes spring from class relations, that is to say, from the economic relations of the people who carry out these changes.