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An interesting way of seeing development in Third World countries is through modernization. This includes electronification of households and increases in phone plans. This does not accurately convey social development although it is hard to precisely measure, and institutions differ greatly in their methods.

Indicators of social change can be used to complement economic factors as indicators of development and in formulating development policies. In a multi-country review of development progress, improved outcomes on these measures has generally been found to be driven by a combination of smart leadership, policies, institutions, and friends, according to the Overseas Development Institute.

Migration has throughout history also led to significant international development. As people move, their culture, knowledge, skills and technologies move with them. Migrants' ties with their past homes and communities lead to international relationships and further flows of goods, capital and knowledge. The value of remittances sent home by migrants in modern times is much greater than the total in international aid given.

International development and disaster relief are both often grouped into sectors, which correlate with the major themes of international development and with the Millennium Development Goals — which are included in the descriptions below. There is no clearly defined list of sectors, but some of the more established and universally accepted sectors are further explored here.

After Socialism

The sectors are highly interlinked, illustrating the complexity of the problems they seek to deal with. In development, this is the provision of water and sanitation toilets , bathing facilities, a healthy environment of sufficient quantity and quality to supply an acceptable standard of living. This is different from a relief response, where it is the provision of water and sanitation in sufficient quantity and quality to maintain life. The provision of water and sanitation is primarily an engineering challenge, but also often includes an education element and is closely connected with shelter, politics and human rights.

The seventh Millennium Development Goal is to ensure environmental sustainability , including reducing by half the proportion of people without sustainable access to safe drinking water and achieving significant improvement in lives of at least million slum dwellers, by This is provision of access to quality healthcare to the population in an efficient and consistent manner and according to their needs.

The standard and level of provision that is acceptable or appropriate depends on many factors and is highly specific to country and location. For example, in large city whether in a 'developing' country or not , it is appropriate and often practical to provide a high standard hospital which can offer a full range of treatments; in a remote rural community it may be more appropriate and practical to provide a visiting healthworker on a periodic basis, possibly with a rural clinic serving several different communities.

The Impact of Research on Development Policy and Practice: This Much We Know

The provision of access to healthcare is both an engineering challenge as it requires infrastructure such as hospitals and transport systems and an education challenge as it requires qualified healthworkers and educated consumers. The fourth Millennium Development Goal is to reduce by two thirds the mortality rate among children under five. The fifth Millennium Development Goal is to reduce by three quarters the maternal mortality ratio. Reaching these goals is also a management challenge.

Health services need to make the best use of limited resources while providing the same quality of care to every man, woman and child everywhere. Achieving this level of services requires innovation, quality improvement and expansion of public health services and programs. The main goal is to make public health truly public. The provision of education often focuses on providing free primary level education , but also covers secondary and higher education.

A lack of access to education is one of the primary limits on human development, and is related closely to every one of the other sectors. Almost every development project includes an aspect of education as development by its very nature requires a change in the way people live. The second Millennium Development Goal is to Provide universal primary education. The provision of education is itself an education challenge, as it requires qualified teachers who must be trained in higher education institutions.

However, donors are unwilling to provide support to higher education because their policies now target the MDG. The provision of appropriate shelter is concerned with providing suitable housing for families and communities. It is highly specific to context of culture , location, climate and other factors. In development, it is concerned with providing housing of an appropriate quality and type to accommodate people in the long term. This is distinct from shelter in relief, which is concerned with providing sufficient shelter to maintain life.

The provision of human rights is concerned with ensuring that all people everywhere receive the rights conferred on them by International human rights instruments [1]. There are many of these, but the most important for international development are:. Human rights covers a huge range of topics.

Some of those more relevant to international development projects include rights associated with gender equality , justice , employment , social welfare and culture. The third Millennium Development Goal is to promote gender equality and empower women by eliminating gender disparity in primary and secondary education preferably by , and at all levels by Accomplishing this goal could assist in the achievement of 5 of the other 8 Millennium Development Goals.

Goals 1—6 are in direct correlation with the status of women in the communities of problem countries such as The Democratic Republic of Congo, Sub-Saharan Africa and many of the developing nations. The low social stature of a woman inhibits her abilities to truly impact her community in astonishing ways.

Noting the relationship between mother and offspring, Goals 1, 4 and 5 are ones to feel the wrath of poor social status. An unhealthy mother simply cannot bear a healthy child, let alone nurse a sickly one back to health, without access to adequate nutrition. A mother characteristically takes most of the care of a child, therefore must have the resources available to not only support herself but another human as well.

Without these resources, if she has not already succumbed to birthing complications, a woman cannot survive the perils of poverty and hunger and support her child simultaneously.

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In a different spectrum of societal norms the Goals 2 and 6 are being threatened by an age old privilege. Historically females have been refused education in pardon of males, resulting in lesser opportunity to thrive economically. Giving women equal access to an adequate education brings the global community steps closer to achieving universal primary education.

Along with this education will come proper spread of knowledge regarding safe practices in disease avoidance. Increasing the availability of a proper education to women will be remarkably beneficial on a variety of fronts. To promote gender equality is to promote progress towards global development. This is concerned with ensuring that all people are able to make a living for themselves and provide themselves with an adequate standard of living, without compromising their human rights and while maintaining dignity.

The first Millennium Development Goal is to reduce by half the proportion of people living on less than a dollar a day and reduce by half the proportion of people who suffer from hunger. The concept of livelihoods is directly drawn from the Sustainable Livelihoods Approach SLA to international development. The approach and subsequent practical framework is credited to Robert Chambers, who, writing from the mids and onward, was interested in fostering efficiency in development cooperation.

The approach is considered to be more comprehensive than previous theories and methodology of "conventional" development initiatives. The core concepts include: taking a holistic view, building on community and individual strengths, focusing on linking both macro and micro-level thinking, sustainability, and maintaining a dynamic and ever-evolving framework.

Development Studies : Understanding Development Theories ( Part- 1 )

Several organisations and initiatives exist which are concerned with providing financial systems and frameworks which allow people to organise or purchase services, items or projects for their own development. The Nobel Peace Prize was awarded jointly to Muhammad Yunus and the Grameen Bank , which he founded, for their work in providing microcredit to the poor.

The terms "developed" and "developing" or "underdeveloped" , have proven problematic in forming policy as they ignore issues of wealth distribution and the lingering effects of colonialism. Some theorists see development efforts as fundamentally neo-colonial , in which a wealthier nation forces its industrial and economic structure on a poorer nation, which will then become a consumer of the developed nation's goods and services. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

Concept concerning the level of development on an international scale. This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. November Main article: Development theory.

MSc in International Development Studies, As, Norway

Main article: Millennium Development Goals. Main article: Sustainable Development Goals. Main articles: Economic inequality and North-South divide. See also: South-South cooperation. Main article: Dignity.

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Main article: Participation decision making. See also: Orality. See also: Appropriate technology. Main articles: Sustainable development and Sustainability. This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.

Main article: Capacity building.